SPRG scientists are productive publishers of their scientific discoveries. Among these scores of publications, recent Living Links and Budongo publications include;


Lewis, L. S., Wessling, E. G., Kano, F., Stevens, J. M. G., Call, J. & Krupenye, C. (2023). Bonobos and chimpanzees remember familiar conspecifics for decades. PNAS, accepted, awaiting publication date

Malassis, R., & Seed, A. M. (2023). Do they know or just do it? Investigating implicit and explicit sequence learning by capuchin monkeys, human adults and children. Consciousness and Cognition, 114,

Kean, D., Renner, E., Atkinson, M., & Caldwell, C. A. (2023). Capuchin monkeys learn to use information equally well from individual exploration and social demonstration. Animal Cognition, 26, 435-450 (2023),

Daoudi-Simison, S., O’Sullivan, E., Moat, G., Lee, P. C., & Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (2023). Do mixed-species groups of capuchin (Sapajus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) synchronize their behaviour? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 378 (1878),


Jordan, E.J., Völter, C. J. & Seed, A. (2022). Do capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) use exploration to form intuitions about physical properties? Cognitive Neuropsychology,

Messer, E.J.E., Bowler, M. T., Claidière, N. & Whiten, A. (2022). The role of anointing in robust capuchin monkey, Sapajus apella, social dynamics. Animal Behaviour, 190, 103-114,

Primates, M. (2022). The evolution of primate short-term memory. Animal Behavior & Cognition, in press

McEwen, E.S., Warren, E., Tenpas, S., Jones, B., Durdevic, K., Rapport-Munro, E. & Call, J. (2022). Primate cognition in zoos: Reviewing the impact of zoo‐based research over 15 years. American Journal of Primatology, 



Civelek, Z., Völter, C. J. & Seed, A. (2021). What happened? Do preschool children and capuchin monkeys spontaneously use visual traces to locate a reward? Proc. R. Soc. B., 288,

Blakey, K. H., Rafetseder, E., Atkinson, M., Renner, E., Cowan-Forsythe, F., Sati, S. J., & Caldwell, C. A. (2021). Development of strategic social information seeking: Implications for cumulative culture. PLoS ONE, 16(8),

Lewis, L. S., Kano, F., Stevens, J. M. G., DuBois, J. G., Call, J., & Krupenye, C. (2021). Bonobos and chimpanzees preferentially attend to familiar members of the dominant sex. Animal Behaviour, 177,

Craig, L. E., & Vick, S. (2021). Engaging Zoo Visitors at Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Exhibits Promotes Positive Attitudes Towards Chimpanzees and Conservation. Anthrozoos, 34(1)

Morton, F. B., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Brosnan, S. F., Thierry, B., Paukner, A., Essler, J. L., Marcum, C. S., & Lee, P. C. (2021). Studying animal innovation at the individual level: a ratings-based assessment in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus [Cebus] sp.). Journal of Comparative Psychology,

Renner, E., Kean, D., Atkinson, M., & Caldwell, C. A. (2021). The use of individual, social, and animated cue information by capuchin monkeys and children in a touchscreen task. Scientific Reports, 11, 1043,


Jordan, E. J., Townrow, L. A. J., Wright, C. I., & Seed, A. (2020). Understanding Solidity: Investigating Knowledge of a Functional Object Property in Brown Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus apella) and Common Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Animal Behavior and Cognition, 7(3), 365-391. 

Kersken, V., Zhang, D., Gomez, J-C., Seed, A., & Ball, D. (2020). Capuchin monkeys individuate objects based on spatio-temporal and property/kind information: Evidence from looking and reaching measures. Animal Behavior and Cognition, 7(3), 343-364.

Pereira, A. S., Kavanagh, E., Hobaiter, C., Slocombe, K. E., & Lameira, A. R. (2020). Chimpanzee lip-smacks confirm primate continuity for speech-rhythm evolution. Biology Letters, 16(5) https://doi/10.1098/rsbl.2020.0232

Wilson, V., Weiss, A., Lefevre, C. E., Ochiai, T., Matsuzawa, T., Inoue-murayama, M., Freeman, H., Herrelko, E. S., & Altschul, D. M. (2020). Facial width-to-height ratio in chimpanzees: Links to age, sex and personality. Evolution and Human Behavior, 41 (3), 226-234,

Picard, A. M., Mundry, R., Auersperg, A. M., Boeving, E. R., Boucherie, P. H., Bugnyar, T., Dufour, V., Emery, N. J., Federspiel, I. G., Gajdon, G. K., Guéry, J., Hegedič, M., Horn, L., Kavanagh, E., Lambert, M. L., Massen, J. J. M., Rodrigues, M. A., Schiestl, M., Schwing, R., Szabo, B., Taylor, A. H., van Horik, J. O., von Bayern, A. M. P., Seed, A., & Slocombe, K. E. (2020). Why preen others? Predictors of allopreening in parrots and corvids and comparisons to grooming in great apes. Ethology, 126 (2), 207-228,


Primates, M., Altschul, D. M., Beran M. J., Bohn M., Call J., DeTroy S., et al. (2019). Establishing an infrastructure for collaboration in primate cognition research. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0223675. 

Wallace, E. K., Herrelko, E. S., Koski, S. E., Vick, S., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., & Slocombe, K. E. (2019). Exploration of potential triggers for self-directed behaviours and regurgitation and reingestion in zoo-housed chimpanzees.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 221. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2019.104878

Renner, E., Atkinson, M., & Caldwell, C. A. (2019). Squirrel monkey responses to information from social demonstration and individual exploration using touchscreen and object choice tasks.  PeerJ, 7,


Burdett, E.R.R., McGuigan, N., Harrison, R. & Whiten, A. (2018). The interaction of social and perceivable causal factors in shaping ‘over-imitation’. Cognitive Development, 47, 8-18.

Dickerson, K.L., Ainge, J.A., & Seed, A.M. (2018). The role of association in pre-schoolers’ solutions to “spoon tests” of future planning. Current Biology 28 (14), 2309-2313.

O’Sullivan, E.P., Bijvoet-van den Berg, S., & Caldwell, C.A. (2018). Automatic imitation effects are influenced by experience of synchronous action in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 171, 113-130.

Gartner, M.C. & Weiss, A. (2018). Studying primate personality in zoos: Implications for the management, welfare and conservation of great apes. International Zoo Yearbook, 52 (1), 79–91.

Wilson, V.A.D., Inoue-Murayama, M., & Weiss, A. (2018). A comparison of personality in the common and bolivian squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus and Saimiri boliviensis). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 132 (1), 24–39.

Altschul, D.M., Hopkins, W.D., Herrelko, E.S., Inoue-Murayama, M., Matsuzawa, T., King, J.E., Ross, S.R., & Weiss, A. (2018). Personality links with lifespan in chimpanzees. Elife. 2018;7:e33781.


O’Sullivan, E., Claidière, N., & Caldwell, C. A. (2017). Action-matching biases in monkeys (Sapajus sp.) in a stimulus-response compatibility task: Evaluating experience-dependent malleability. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 131 (4), 337-347.

Wood, L. A. & Whiten, A. (2017). Visible spatial contiguity of social information and reward affects social learning in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella) and children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 131 (4), 304-316.

Daoudi, S., Badihi, G., & Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (2017). Is mixed-species living cognitively enriching? Enclosure use and welfare in two captive groups of tufted capuchins (Sapajus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Animal Behavior and Cognition, 4(1), 52-71.

Polgár, Z., Wood, L., & Haskell, M. J. (2017). Individual differences in zoo‐housed squirrel monkeys'(Saimiri sciureus) reactions to visitors, research participation, and personality ratings. American Journal of Primatology, 79(5).

Altschul, D.M, Emma K. Wallace, Ruth Sonnweber, Masaki Tomonaga, Alexander Weiss (2017). Chimpanzee intellect: personality, performance and motivation with touchscreen tasks. Proceedings of The Royal Society B, 4 (5).

Lucas, A. J., Burdett, E. R. R., Burgess, V., Wood. L.A., McGuigan, N., Harris, P. L. & Whiten, A. (2017). The development of selective copying: children’s learning from an expert versus their mother. Child Development, 88 (6), 2026-2042.

Wallace, E.K., Altschul, D., Korfer, K., Benti, B., Kaeser, A., Lambeth, S., Waller, B. & Slocombe, K.E. (2017). Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)? PLoS ONE 12(3)

Robinson, L.M., Altschul, D., Wallace, E., Úbeda, Y., Llorente, M., Machanda, Z., Slocombe, K.E., Leach, M., Waran, N.K. & Weiss, A. (2017). Chimpanzees with positive welfare are happier, extraverted, and emotionally stable. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 191, 90-97.

Tecwyn, E. C., Denison, S., Messer, E. J. E., & Buchsbaum, D. (2017). Intuitive probabilistic inference in capuchin monkeys. Animal Cognition, 20, 243-256


Morton, F. B., Brosnan, S. F., Prétôt, L., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., O’Sullivan, E., Stocker, M., & Wilson, V. A. (2016). Using photographs to study animal social cognition and behaviour: Do capuchins’ responses to photos reflect reality? Behavioural processes, 124, 38-46.

Robinson, L. M., Morton, F. B., Gartner, M. C., Widness, J., Paukner, A., Essler, J. L., & Weiss, A. (2016). Divergent personality structures of brown and white-faced capuchins. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 130 (4).

Robinson, L. M., Waran, N. K., Leach, M. C., Morton, F. B., Paukner, A., Lonsdorf, E., & Weiss, A. (2016). Happiness is positive welfare in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 181, 145–151.

Burdett, E.R.R., Lucas, A.J., Buchsbaum, D., McGuigan, N., Wood, L.A., & Whiten, A. (2016). Do Children Copy an Expert or a Majority? Examining Selective Learning in Instrumental and Normative Contexts. PLoS ONE 11(10): e0164698.

Wood, L. A., Harrison, R. A., Lucas, A. J., McGuigan, N., Burdett, E. R. R., & Whiten, A. (2016). “Model age-based” and “copy when uncertain” biases in children’s social learning of a novel task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150, 272-284.


Ruby, S., & Buchanan‐Smith, H. M. (2015). The effects of individual cubicle research on the social interactions and individual behavior of brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella)American Journal of Primatology, 77(10), 1097-1108.

Morton, F.B., Weiss, A. Buchanan-Smith, and Lee, P.C (2015). Capuchin monkeys with similar personalities have higher quality relationships independent of age, sex, kinship and rank. Animal Behaviour, 105, 163 -171.

Claidiere, N., Whiten, A., Mareno, M.C., Messer, E.J.E., Brosnan, S.F., Hopper, L.M., Lambeth, S.P., Schapiro, S.J. & McGuigan, N. (2015). Selective and contagious prosocial resource donation in capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and humansScientific Reports, 5: 7631.

Watson, S. K., Townsend, S. W., Schel, A. M., Wilke, C., Wallace, E. K., Cheng, L., West, V. & Slocombe, K. E. (2015). Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees. Current Biology 25, 495-499

Bowler, M., Messer, E. J. E., Claidière, N., Whiten, A. (2015). Mutual medication in capuchin monkeys – Social anointing improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines. Scientific Reports 5,


Claidière, N., Bowler, M., Brookes, S., Brown, R. & Whiten, A. (2014). Frequency of behaviour witnessed and conformity in an everyday social learning contextPLOS ONE 9

Lefevre, C.E., Wilson, V.A.D., Morton, F.B., Brosnan, S.F., Paukner, A., & Bates, T.C. (2014). Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys. PLoS ONE 9(4): e93369.

MacLean, E. L., Messer, E. J. E., Seed, A. M., Slocombe, K. E., & Tao, R. (2014). The evolution of self-control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (20)

Pasquaretta, C., Levé, M., Claidière, N., van de Waal, E., Whiten, A., & Sueur, C. (2014). Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks. Scientific Reports, 4: 7600

Wilson, V. A. D., Lefevre, C. E., Morton, F. B., Brosnan, S. F., Paukner, A., & Bates, T. C. (2014). Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella). Personality and Individual Differences, 58, 89-94


Rimpley, K. & Buchannan-Smith, H. (2013). Reliably signalling a startling husbandry event improves welfare of zoo-housed capuchins (Sapajus apella). Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 147, 205-213.

Claidière, N., Messer, E.J.M., Hoppitt, W. & Whiten, A. (2013). Diffusion Dynamics of Socially Learned Foraging Techniques in Squirrel Monkeys. Current Biology. 23 (13), doi:

Buchanan-Smith, H.M., Griciute, J., Daoudi, S., Leonardi, R. & Whiten, A. (2013). Interspecific interactions and welfare implications in mixed species communities of capuchin (Sapajus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) over 3 years. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 147 (3-4), 324-333.

Morton, F.B., Lee, P.C., Buchanan-Smith, H.M., Brosnan, S., Thierry, B., Paukner, A., de Waal, F.B.M., Widness, J., Essler, J. & Weiss, A. (2013). Personality structure in brown capuchin monkeys: Comparisons with chimpanzees, orangutans, and rhesus macaques. Journal of Comparative Psychology.

Morton, F.B., Lee, P.C., & Buchanan-Smith, H.M. (2013). Taking personality selection bias seriously in animal cognition research: A case study in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella)Animal Cognition. 16, 677–684


Schel, A. M., Rawlings, B., Claidiere, N., Wilke, C., Wathan, J., Richardson, J., Pearson, S., Herrelko, E. S., Whiten, A. & Slocombe, K. (2012). Network analysis of social changes in a captive chimpanzee community following the successful integration of two adult groups. American Journal of Primatology 75, 254-66.

Bowler, M., Buchanan-Smith, H.M., & Whiten, A. (2012). Assessing Public Engagement with Science in a University Primate Research Centre in a National Zoo. PLoS ONE, 7 (4)

Buchanan-Smith, H.M. (2012). Mixed-species exhibition of Neotropical primates: analysis of species combination success.  International Zoo Yearbook, 46,150-163.

Claidière, N., Bowler, M., & Whiten, A. (2012). Evidence for Weak or Linear Conformity but Not for Hyper-Conformity in an Everyday Social Learning Context. PLoS ONE 7(2): e30970. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030970

Claidière, N., & Whiten, A. (2012). Integrating the study of conformity and culture in humans and nonhuman animalsPsychological Bulletin 138: 126-145.


Dufour, V., Sueur, C., Whiten, A. & Buchanan-Smith, H.M. (2011). The impact of moving to a novel environment on social networks, activity and wellbeing in two new world primatesAmerican Journal of Primatology, Special Issue on Social Networks in Primates Volume 73, Issue 8, pages 802–811.

Macdonald, C. & Whiten, A. (2011). The ‘Living Links to Human Evolution’ Research Centre in Edinburgh Zoo: a new endeavour in collaboration. International Zoo Yearbook. Volume 45, Issue 1, pages 7–17.


Leonardi, R., Buchanan-Smith, H., Dufour, V., MacDonald, C. & Whiten, A. (2010). Living Together: Behaviour and welfare in single and mixed species groups of capuchin (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).  American Journal of Primatology 72(1):33-47.


You can find more information about our publications by visiting the SPRG website or, for St Andrews, the School of Psychology Research Portal . Clicking on individual staff of interest will lead to personal web-pages. These provide a route that may permit downloads of pdfs of original articles; pdfs of articles for personal use are often available from their authors on request.

(Note: the above are external links, so please let us know if you find any of them broken)